Adapters, BizTalk, BizTalk Server 2010, Pipeline Components

Threading issues in WCF-Adapter Body Path

(I originally wrote this the 5th of May 2014 but did not publish it. I only sent it as internal feedback at the time. I am now choosing to publish it anyway since there has now been ample time for Microsoft to fix the problem)

The scenario

I am using the BizTalk Server WCF adapters in a solicit-response send port and I am getting the response using the Body Path configuration option.

The problem

Main issues that using the WCF Adapter – Messages tab – Inbound BizTalk message body – Path, configured with an XPath and String Node Encoding configuration options produces under load:

  • Deserialization fails producing random and irregular errors seemingly caused by the stream position jumping to an erroneous location.
  • The adapter returns the wrong mismatched response (!!!) back to the pipeline

For the first issue, the following is the error message (or an example of):

System.Xml.XmlException: Start element ‘To s:mustUndersta’ does not match end element ‘sendMessageResult’. Line 1, position 951.

If you catch it and look at the XmlExceptions call stack, you will find this:

at System.Xml.XmlExceptionHelper.ThrowXmlException(XmlDictionaryReader reader, String res, String arg1, String arg2, String arg3)
at System.Xml.XmlUTF8TextReader.ReadEndElement()
at System.Xml.XmlUTF8TextReader.Read()
at System.Xml.XmlSubtreeReader.Read()
at Microsoft.BizTalk.Adapter.Wcf.Runtime.BinaryReaderStream.ReadContentAsString(Byte[] buffer, Int32 offset, Int32 count)
… (call stack continues with custom code)

For the second issue, you will NOT find anything wrong in BizTalk. It will simply associate the wrong response with the wrong request and return the wrong message! This is far worse than the first exception in my opinion since it effectively, successfully and quietly sends back someone else’s response to a caller. When examining it closer it does not appear to swap responses, it just hands one response back to more then one caller, and the other responses simply disappear and are never used. BizTalk will not discover this (at least not in my case where I am always getting the same response MessageType back from the port), only whatever application logic that are either built into BizTalk by you or the system or application calling BizTalk or human intervention might discover what has happened. Perhaps when getting the wrong data back.

Guide to reproduce

Steps (that I took) to build up and test a solution to reproduce the error:

  1. Download the Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) and Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) Samples for .NET Framework 4, (this is not required, though it gives us a simple starting point.
  2. Use the Self-Host sample found at …WCFBasicServicesHostingSelfHostCS and described at Basically this is the Calculator sample hosted in a Console app (this is not required for repro, it is just for simplicity).
  3. Test it to make sure it’s working.
  4. Extend the Client somewhat to get a bit more simultaneous and multi-threaded. I will show this later but essentially I am using the Calculator Add method and from several threads to create some load.
  5. Test it again and see there are no errors.
  6. Create a receive port and receive location, as well as a send port in BizTalk and route the message through so that BizTalk is between the client and the service.
  7. Test it and make sure it’s working (at this point I still have no issues).
  8. Now consume the Calculator service metadata in a BizTalk project to create the schema for the Add, Subtract, etc methods and their responses. Create a simple BizTalk flat file schema (we need something to store the XPath string we extract), create a pipeline with the Flat File Disassembler configured with that schema (we need to disassemble the string we receive from the adapter into that schema), and then a Map mapping from that schema to the original Calculator service schema and the AddResponse message (we want the client to get the correct response back).
  9. Compile, Deploy and wire everything up inside Biztalk (ie re-configure the ports created to use the receive pipeline we created, and the map we created.
  10. Also configure the send ports WCF Adapter – Messages tab – Inbound BizTalk message body – Path,  with an XPath and String Node Encoding.
  11. Run a single message through to make sure everything works. In fact, run it non-multi-threaded with several messages and make sure it works (which for me it did).
  12. Now run multiple threads to create a load on the system.
  13. Watch as the previously described errors appear. At first it works fine, then I begin getting responses I did not expect (2+2 = 8?) and then I run into the ‘Start element ‘…’ does not match end element ‘…’ exception.

An in-depth look

The service

There is nothing to see here really. It’s your most basic WCF service, same as it comes with the sample (slightly abbreviated in the sample below).


namespace Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples
    // Define a service contract.
    public interface ICalculator
        double Add(double n1, double n2);

    // Service class which implements the service contract.
    // Added code to write output to the console window
    public class CalculatorService : ICalculator
        public double Add(double n1, double n2)
            double result = n1 + n2;
            Console.WriteLine("Received Add({0},{1})", n1, n2);
            Console.WriteLine("Return: {0}", result);
            return result;

        // Host the service within this EXE console application.
        public static void Main()
            // Create a ServiceHost for the CalculatorService type.
            using (ServiceHost serviceHost = new ServiceHost(typeof(CalculatorService)))
                // Open the ServiceHost to create listeners and start listening for messages.

                // The service can now be accessed.
                Console.WriteLine("The service is ready.");
                Console.WriteLine("Press <ENTER> to terminate service.");





This is basically the same as the sample, the only exception is that I removed security (simply because that’s what the scenario I was testing had).

        <binding name="wsConfig">
          <security mode="None" />
      <service name="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.CalculatorService" behaviorConfiguration="CalculatorServiceBehavior">
            <add baseAddress="http://localhost:8000/ServiceModelSamples/service"/>
        <!-- this endpoint is exposed at the base address provided by host: http://localhost:8000/ServiceModelSamples/service  -->
        <endpoint address="" binding="wsHttpBinding" contract="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.ICalculator" bindingConfiguration="wsConfig"/>
        <!-- the mex endpoint is exposed at http://localhost:8000/ServiceModelSamples/service/mex -->
        <endpoint address="mex" binding="mexHttpBinding" contract="IMetadataExchange"/>

    <!--For debugging purposes set the includeExceptionDetailInFaults attribute to true-->
        <behavior name="CalculatorServiceBehavior">
          <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="True"/>
          <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="False"/>

The client

Here I have added some multi-threading aspects on top of the sample code.


namespace Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples
    //The service contract is defined in generatedClient.cs, generated from the service by the svcutil tool.

    //Client implementation code.
    class Client
        static void Main()
            Console.WriteLine("Press ENTER to start!");

            List<Task> tList = new List<Task>();

            Action a = () =>
                Random random = new Random();
                int mseconds = random.Next(1, 100) * 10;

                // Create a client
                CalculatorClient client = new CalculatorClient();

                for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
                    double result = client.Add(Convert.ToDouble(i), Convert.ToDouble(i));
                    double localResult = Convert.ToDouble(i) + Convert.ToDouble(i);
                    if (result != localResult)
                        Console.WriteLine("{0} !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! {1}", result, localResult);

                //Closing the client gracefully closes the connection and cleans up resources

            for (int i = 0; i < 100; i++)
                Task t = new Task(a);


            Console.WriteLine("Press <ENTER> to terminate client.");

As you can see it does not take much, that is – I am not running thousands of threads here, in fact in total I only make a thousand calls, and I get an error every time I have run the app so far.

Let’s examine this a little bit closer. As you can see I am doing the following.

double result = client.Add(Convert.ToDouble(i), Convert.ToDouble(i));
double localResult = Convert.ToDouble(i) + Convert.ToDouble(i);
if (result != localResult)
    Console.WriteLine("{0} !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! {1}", result, localResult);

That is, I am sending the addition of the two numbers to the service, and the doing the same calculation locally. Then I compare the result I get from the service with my local result. If they do not match, I print the fact.


The clients config (by necessity) matches that of the services. It is available in the download but I am not including a dump of it.

The BizTalk solution

To be able to reproduce the problem in a portable manner I created a simple BizTalk solution.

Visual Studio Solution

At this point I have got three projects in Visual Studio, of which my BizTalk project is the first in the below screenshot.


It contains the following artifacts:

  • CalculatorService_microsoft_servicemodel_samples.xsd – the schema for the Calculator service that was automatically generated for me (I removed the other generated artifacts as they were non-essential for the purpose of this repro).
  • FFAddResult.xsd – a simple flat file schema that will act as the temporary carrier of the result after I extract it from the incoming xml response until the Map transforms the message back into an AddResponse message.
  • Map1.btm – a map that transforms from FFAddResult to CalculatorService_microsoft_servicemodel_samples#AddResponse.
  • ReceiveFFAddResultPipeline.btp – a disassemble pipeline that will take the incoming string and create an FFAddResult xml message.

The FFAddResult.xsd is extremely simple.


As is the Map1.btm.


BizTalk Server configuration

In BizTalk I have a receive port and a receive location with very simple configuration; PassThruReceive and PassThruTransmit pipelines, WCF-Custom WS-Http binding (so I can host it in BizTalk and have fewer moving pieces – not essential to the repro, just easier to move around).


Everything is according to default configuration except no security.


No behaviors, no special parts of the message extracted here or non of that (the xpath is on the send port receive).

Speaking of which, the send port (in the configuration that give me issues) is a solicit-response port running the WCF-WSHttp adapter (to be frank, I have not tested other adapters/bindings) and running the receive pipeline we created.


Receive pipeline has trivial config.


We have our inbound map configured.


And a filter on the receive port name that I won’t include a screenshot of.

The adapter configuration is set to forward the call to the backend service add method.


It also has security set to none (not shown in screenshot) as well as on the Messages tab having the Inbound BizTalk message body – Path,  set to an XPath and String Node Encoding. the xpath in this case is /*[local-name()=’AddResponse’ and namespace-uri()=’http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples’]/*[local-name()=’AddResult’ and namespace-uri()=’http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples’%5D, which will forward the string value inside the AddResult node for the pipeline.

Executing the failing code

Below is a screenshot of the app running, where as you can notice, the response is not as expected.


As mentioned before, the app gets a number if these mismatched erroneous responses and then crashes (due to the previously mentioned exception and the sample apps lack of exception handling).

Here is also some sample output from the service (in this case the screenshot is from a test where it has been able to run to completion and what we are seeing are the final tasks/threads doing their last calls).


The workaround

Ok, now that we are aware of the failing component. Can we work around it?

Enter the XPathExtractor pipline component, based of some of BizTalks hidden gems.

Essentially, the solution is – don’t use the BizTalk message body – Path option. Instead, just get the body and extract the XPath you want in a pipeline component. Although I have not done any performance comparisons but I am not expecting the code to have any noticeably difference in performance. You might want to think twice before running very large message through it (as will become evident in the source code included later). But I think the same is true for using the adapters Body Path option, which (as we can see from the callstack the exception had) also gets the content of the node as a string.

I created a new port and a new pipeline, getting only he body in the adapter and instead extracting the string in the pipeline. Configuration as follows.


The Execute method of the pipeline component does this:

Stream stream = new ReadOnlySeekableStream(pInMsg.BodyPart.GetOriginalDataStream());

XmlTextReader xmlTextReader = new XmlTextReader(stream);
XPathCollection xPathCollection = new XPathCollection();
XPathReader xPathReader = new XPathReader(xmlTextReader, xPathCollection);

bool matchFound = false;
while (xPathReader.ReadUntilMatch())
    if (xPathReader.Match(0))
        string val = xPathReader.ReadString();
        stream = new VirtualStream(new MemoryStream(System.Text.Encoding.GetEncoding(this.Encoding).GetBytes(val)));
        matchFound = true;
        //break; // don't break, read to end to play nice with other components 
                    // that have a streaming approach and might want to process the full message

if (!matchFound)
    throw new Exception("xPathReader.ReadUntilMatch() found no match");

stream.Seek(0, SeekOrigin.Begin);
pInMsg.BodyPart.Data = stream; 

I have run this a number of times and never as of yet gotten the same exception.

Remember that if you have any objections on the code in this component (like why is he adding the xPathReader to the resourceTracker, or whatever else) that this is not used when I get the issues, this is used to get around them.

Quick performance comparison

Quick and dirty indeed. This has no intention to go deep or be thorough. With that out of the way…

Without Adapter Body Path

Red is proc. Blue is message publishing rate. Green is memory (not sure I got the right counter for that one, but I’ll ignore that for putting together this post).


With Adapter Body Path


It’s not really applicable to performance measures because it fails quite early. The most interesting thing with this graph I would say is that I don’t have to reach higher than 4 simultaneous request to start getting issues.

With XPath extraction in pipeline component


Also note that due to the randomness of my Task execution this may not be altogether comparable, so just keep that in mind. I post it mainly to illustrate that I am not running a really massive load, to show how early it fails, and to note that the workaround is not terrible.

My environment

My repro environment is a Hyper-V virtual machine with 4608MB allocated running alone on a 8 core host machine. It’s BizTalk Server 2010 with CU6, Windows Server 2008 R2 fully patched, SQL Server 2008 R2 SP1 (yes, I am aware there is a later service pack, but at the time it was not applied. I would be very surprised if it makes a difference). I have reproduced this error on several environments so it’s not isolated to mine. Although I am running BizTalk Server 2010 I would not be surprised to find this in BizTalk Server 2009, BizTalk Server 2006 R2 or even BizTalk Server 2013. Though I can neither confirm not deny since I have not tried.


The full source code and bindings for everything I have mentioned in this article, including the code for the pipeline component, is available for download here.

Adapters, Azure, BizTalk, Mesh

Test run of the BizTalk Adapter for Live Mesh

The Live Mesh adapter is part of the recently released BizTalk Azure Adapters SDK 1.0 July CTP. It was first shown at TechEd 2009 North America by Danny Garber. But as someone who didn’t attend the conference, it passed me by. It didn’t surface for me until it made it’s way to codeplex and Richard Seroter made a note of the fact a week ago or so. If you have TechEd Online access you can find the original video demoing it here.

How to use it

  1. Register for an account on Azure services development portal, if you don’t have one already. Specifically you want access to Live Services.

  2. Install the pre-requisites.

    • The WCF LOB Adapter SDK.

    • The Live Framework SDK. You don’t need the tools, but you need the SDK.

    • There might be other pre-requisites though that I already had in place. So your experience might vary.

  3. Install the adapter. If you want to install it on a 64-bit system you can download the installer from codeplex. At the time of this writing a 32-bit (for VPCs etc) installer isn’t available, so you need to get the sources and build the installer. However see my install note 3 below, as you have to make a small change to the installer for it to work.

  4. Configure the adapter in BizTalk using the WCF-Custom adapter, or use my mesh.bindinginfo.xml as a template (don’t forget to change to your username and password). Some notes here:

    • You have to give it an URI of “mesh://?actions=LiveFX/OnReceiveFeed“, it’s hard coded in the adapter. If it isn’t given that then it does nothing. To make it unique and be able to have more then one mesh receive location you can add to it, like you would a querystring. It will be accepted, but not handled, only the value of actions is retrieved and used by the adapter. A smart thing here would be to move something into the URI that would make it naturally unique. When you configure other adapters it’s the name of a service, or a procedure or something like that. In a scenario where you are listening to a mesh folder for example, then the name of that would be appopriate, or when listening to notifications from an application, then the name of that; the name of the MeshObject is perhaps a common denominator?

    • image image image

    • At the moment it receives notifications about changes to all resources and then when it gets a notification retrieves all feeds for that MeshObject and tries to read the userdata of the DataEntries associated with each DataEntry as a string, and if it succeeds initializes an XmlReader over that string and creates a message. Thus the userdata must conform with the rules of xml and also a couple of other things built into the adapter today. Like the name of the first node, and an attribute in that node must match those in configuration of the adapter, as must the title of the MeshObject. The attributes value must be equal to the name of the DataFeed that contains the entry which we received a notification for. 
      The logic is a little unclear to me, and has lots of room for improvement, but admittedly – I’m no expert on the mesh resource model, nor do I know what the application it was built for sent across or how it stored it – and, it’s an early CTP. Sample (matching the config seen above, and produced by my sample app):
    • <myXmlElement myFeedNameXmlAttribute=“MeshAdapterFeed”>This is my data</myXmlElement>

  5. Build a cloud app to generate notifications with proper userdata content, or download my (don’t forget to change to your username and password), which corresponds with my bindings above. It creates a MeshObject, a corresponding DataFeed and a DataEntry in that with userdata. In the Live Framework Resource Browser (an invaluable tool that comes with the SDK) it looks something like this:


First thing to note about the adapter is that at the moment it seems very tightly coupled to the demo. Judging from the “vision slide” at codeplex, the idea is for it to eventually expand into other areas as well. It isn’t to hard to change it or update it to for example read files out of a mesh folder. The Live Framework is pretty straight forward once you get used to it. But right now it’s just a glimpse into a future where BizTalk is the server product to bridge on-premises with the cloud – and doing so effortlessly and seamlessly with the use of the artifacts that we as BizTalk Developers are used to.

Install notes

Install note 1:
If the adapter install complains about not being able to find Microsoft.ServiceModel.Channels you haven’t got the WCF LOB Adapter SDK. The exception message (for completeness and search-engines, was: “Could not load file or assembly ‘Microsoft.ServiceModel.Channels, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35’ or one of its dependencies. The system cannot find the file specified.“. 

Install note 2:
If you get a message when running the installer that “Please wait while the installer finishes determining your disk space requirements” – try to run the installer from the commandline using the command msiexec /i <name_of_installer.msi>, or msiexec /package <name_of_installer.msi> /qr.

Install note 3:
I got the message that “Machine.config doesn’t contain system.servicemodel node”. First of all – yes it did, secondly – I could see that the adapter had added it’s bindings to the section – so it must be due to something else. When “binging” (do we call it that now 😉 the exception message I got this post. It didn’t help much, but it did point me in the right direction, becauseit made me remember seeing a custom action in the solution. Sure enough, looking at the code for the custom action revealed the issue. At line 106, the installer is trying to apply the config for the 64-bit machine.config as well as 32-bit, not finding it since I’m on a 32-bit environment. Commenting out that line and rebuilding the install does the trick. Note: I’m not trying to do a fancy works-for-all-scenarios solution. I just wanted to fix my specific problem.

Install note 4:
I can swear on the fact that just before beginning the process of installing the adapter I could create BizTalk projects. After the adapter (and WCF LOB Adapter SDK) was installed – I can’t. Project creation fails and I get the message “One or more templates do not match any installed project packages.”. I can’t really point a finger or lay the blame on any particular point, install, configuration or other entity. It did however stop working. Reinstalling BizTalk Server 2009 Developer Tools and SDK resolved the issue.

Adapters, BizTalk, Download, SFTP

Blogical SFTP Adapter v1.3

I’ve updated the Blogical SFTP Adapter previously released to codeplex by Mikael to include a couple of new features that have been requested and developed for or by customers or community.

  • The abaility to leave files on the source server and rename them instead of deleting them after get.

  • The ability to give a name, not only for the temp path but for the temp file, written to the source server through a send port, to be used for example when you want to directly to the destination folder and only want it to have it’s final name once fully written.

  • The ability to after you have put a file verify that it is really the same size (bytes) as the stream delivered to the adapter by BizTalk. This can be useful when you distrust the network or the receiving server, and causes a delete of the remote file and a following retry in BizTalk should the file sizes no match.

Read more and get the Blogical SFTP Adapter here.

With the above said, we are trying our best to react to requests and suggestions for improvement as well as direct bug reports. For minor or easily adjusted feature additions or bug fixes we are happy to help you right away. For major feature requests or custom development, we will try our best to make it happen, but things might be speedier if we set up a business arrangement around that, if you have such requirements. Please feel free to contact us, though all comments and suggestions should as a first option be posted on the discussions board of the Blogical SFTP Adapter at codeplex.

Adapters, BizTalk, Configuration, Messaging, Pipeline Components

Delivery Notifications outside Orchestrations – a pure Messaging approach

You have a pure messaging solution (no orchestrations) and you wan’t to be able to keep track of messages delivered to their destination by send ports and adapters for internal logging purposes. That is, you want delivery notifications, or acknowledgements, that a message has been successfully delivered to it’s configured location by your send port adapter.

Kevin B Smith (old Microsoft blog here) explains the concepts and functionality of Acknowledgements (ACK) and Negative Acknowledgements (NACK) in this post and Stephen W Thomas has a sample based on that explanation for download here. But both of those deals mainly with doing this from an orchestration. But how do you enable delivery notifications with messaging only and how do you handle the acknowledgement (or for that matter negative acknowledgements) returned?

It’s really quite simple. Kevin talks about how the system context property AckRequired is set to true. That’s what need to happen, for example in a custom pipeline component.

// Abbreviated version of a Custom Pipeline Components Excute method 
public IBaseMessage Execute(IPipelineContext pContext, IBaseMessage pInMsg)

This will cause BizTalk to generate ACK and NACK messages when the adapter reports a message as succesfully delivered (or in the case of a NACK, when the adapter has failed and a message will be suspended). These messages are special and will only be published to the MsgBox if there is someone subscribing to them.

So you need a port, in the screenshot below a direct bound receive port in an orchestration, that filter on acknowledgement messages (in this case on BTS.AckType == “ACK”)

and something that you can use to correlate back to the message that was sent message. Me, in my internal logging solution, use a combination of BTS.InterchangeID and BTS.AckSendPortID. It might not work in all scenarios, but it does where I am using it. There are other properties you can use like BTS.AckID (that maps back to the original messages MessageID) or BTS.ReceivePortName (that maps back to the original receive port). To see a complete list of Message Context Properties available for ACK and NACK messages follow this link.

Limitations and possibilties
In this scenario receive ports are One-Way, and the goal is to keep track of the delivery of messages received by BizTalk to their subscribers internally within the BizTalk solution. There is however nothing that stops you from having a send port that filters on, for example, BTS.AckReceivePortName to route acknowledgements back to the original sender, in a pure messaging way, instead of an orchestration. And since BizTalk is publish-subscribe based, you can do this at the same time that you take the orchestration approach, if you so wish.

If there is a demand, I’ll package a sample, but the meat of the solution is above – the rest is just plumbing.